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According to a recent study by the Institut Paris Region (IPR), the overcrowding rate of housing in Île-de-France increased by 0.6% between 2008 and 2018. The percentage of households who are cramped in their homes is particularly important in the social rental stock. The lack of affordable rental and purchase offers in the private sector is identified as the main cause of this trend.
Overcrowding concentrated on intramural Paris and the inner suburbs
The IPR study indicates that “ 2.7 million Ile-de-France residents lived in housing that was too small in 2018 », i.e. one in four French people. The region stands out from the rest of France, where the overcrowding rate is half as high and tends to stabilize. Its authors point out that
Two-thirds of these homes are located in the heart of the capital and in the inner suburbs, but the phenomenon is gradually spreading to the outer suburbs”.
It mainly affects cities that have a significant proportion of old or degraded properties in social or private parks that are more accessible to small budgets. In the list are 11 Parisian districts, as well as 22 communes of Seine-Saint-Denis.
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Profiles of people most affected by overcrowding
The investigation by this urban planning agency also reveals that ” the first concerned are single-parent families », the indicator rising to 33% in this category of the population. In comparison, it is “only” 19% for couples with children and drops to 5% for couples without children. The proportion of people who live in housing that is too cramped is also high for those who have chosen to share accommodation with third parties and not members of their family, as well as young people, the majority of whom are under 25 years old.
Another lesson of the study,
Important 80% of these Ile-de-France residents are tenants of their main residence and in the social rental stock, overcrowding has increased by 2%.
The IPR attributes the problem to “the weakness of an affordable offer in the private sector, both for purchase and for rental”.
For lack of means to become owners because of the high prices in the private sector, they do not have the possibility of moving. Many young people thus continue to live in the family home, while separated couples remain under the same roof, for lack of an alternative.
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Evolution of overcrowding in the Paris region since the pandemic
A change has been observed since the health crisis in Île-de-France in the housing market. According to Martin Omhovère, director of the habitat and society department at IPR,
With telework and school at home, many households have suffered greatly from the lack of space and have not been able to reconcile everything.
As a result, as soon as the travel restrictions were lifted, many fled the center of the capital in favor of the suburbs, taking advantage of the still very attractive interest rates on loans, negotiated by the real estate brokers. Some have even moved to the provinces, in particular those who have continued their activity remotely. Their objective is to gain surface area, and if possible to have an outdoor space (garden, terrace, etc.). However,
the IPR stresses that “these households were not all affected by the over-occupation and have sufficient resources to acquire a property”.